Influence of Nepalese Art in Tibet

    It was through Nepal that Mahayana Buddhism was introduced into Tibet during the reign of Angshuvarma in the 7th century
    AD. There was therefore a great demand for religious icons and Buddhist manuscripts for newly built monasteries throughout
    Tibet. A number of Buddhist manuscripts, including Prajnaparamita, were copied in the Katmandu Valley for these
    monasteries. Astashasrika Prajnaparamita for example, was copied in the Katmandu Valley for these monasteries. Astashasrika
    Prajnaparamita for example, was copied in Patan in the year 999 AD, during the reign of Narendra Deva and Udaya Deva, for
    the Sa-Sakya monastery in Tibet. For the Nor monastery in Tibet, two copies were made in Nepal-one of Astashasrika
    Prajnaparamita in 1069 AD and the other Kavyadarsha in 1111 AD.

    The influence of Nepalese art extended to Tibet and even beyond China regular order during the thirteenth Century. Nepalese
    artisans were dispatched to the courts of Chinese emperors at their request to perform their workmanship and impart expert
    knowledge. The exemplary contribution made by the artisans of Nepal, specially by the Nepalese innovator and architect
    Balbahu, known by this popular name "Arniko" bear testimony to this fact even to day. After the introduction of paper, palm
    leaf became less popular; however, it continued to be used until the eighteenth century. Paper manuscripts imitated the oblong
    shape but were wider than the palm leaves.

    Sculpture
    Another art that traces Nepalese culture from its early beginnings right up to modern times is sculpture. Many carved artifacts
    have been found in the Terai region of the country, thus providing an insight into the religion and culture of these times. As
    with painting, nearly all-Nepalese sculptures are of a religious character. In addition to the theme, it seems that the artists
    themselves were also greatly imbued with a feeling of religious devotion.

    The Golden Age of Nepalese Sculpture
    Nepalese sculpture reached its zenith in the Lichchhavi period; stone, copper and bronze images from this period show round
    faces with slanted eyes. While attention was also given to details, the main feature of this period is presentation of simplicity.
    The use of clothes and ornaments was quite restrained: many Hindu deities, for example are shown wearing only a dhoti(skirt-
    like lower garment). Buddhist deities were carved to show them wearing long sanghatis (a long saffron-colored robes that the
    Buddhists wear hanging from the shoulders). Lichchhavi period idols were so beautifully executed that it is not possible to find
    one specimen with a chiseled mark. Some of the best examples of Lichchhavi art are the images of Sleeping Vishnu in
    Budhanilkantha, located eight km north of Katmandu; and the Vishnu Vikrant or Dwarf Incarnation found near Lazimpat in
    Katmandu. In addition, there are some remarkable sculptures from Lichchhavi period (5th-8th Century) at Changu Narayan.
    The sculptural arts of 6th-14th and from early Malla period (11th-14th century) comprise equally important art treasures of
    Nepal.

    Woodcarving
    Besides stone sculpture and bronze casting, another art form worth mentioning briefly is woodcarving. No visitor to the
    Katmandu valley can fail to be impressed by the numerous extremely intricate and beautiful windows, doors, temple roof-struts
    and other artifacts carved entirely by hand. As wood is obviously more vulnerable to the ravages of time and other art forms,
    well-preserved specimens only date back to the 14th century and the beginning of the Malla period. From this period onwards,
    woodcarving became an integral part of Nepalese architecture, some of the best examples being the old royal palaces of
    Katmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur and a number of different Viharas (monasteries) around the valley.